Bone Fracture And Its Types
What’s a fracture?
A fracture can be termed as a medical condition in which the bone's continuity is broken.
Types of bone fractures
Fractures are classified in numerous ways:
Based on mechanism of the fracture
Traumatic fracture - a fracture resulting from a trauma. For example, it could be a result of a fall, or a brawl, or a road accident.
Pathological fracture - fractures that occur due to certain medical conditions which results in the weakening of the bones. for example, osteoporosis, or certain types of cancers, or even osteogenesis imperfecta - a condition referred to as brittle bone disease.
Periprosthetic fracture - a fracture that happens at the point of mechanical weakness. for example, around an artificial joint, after a knee replacement.
Based on involvement of soft tissue
Closed or Simple fracture - fractures in which the overlying skin is not affected.
Open or Compound fracture - fractures that result in a wound, and the bone getting exposed. Such injuries carry a high risk of infection.
Based on fragments displacement
Non-displaced - the fracture did not involve any bone displacement.
Displaced - fracture resulting in bone displacement, and based on the kind of displacement, they are further classified into
Translated - the fractured segments have moved away from each other and there's a resulting gap.
Angulated fracture - displacement fracture that results in the normal axis of the bone getting altered.
Rotated - displacement fracture that results in rotation of the distal fracture segment from the proximal portion.
Shortened - there's a shortening of the overall bone length due to overlapping of displaced fracture fragments.
Based on the pattern of the fracture
Linear fracture - fracture that runs parallel to the axis of the bone.
Transverse fracture - a fracture that is at right angle to the axis of the bone.
Oblique fracture - a fracture that is diagonal to the axis of the bon (greater than 30 degree).
Spiral fracture - a fracture that results in the twisting of at least one part of the bone.
Compression fracture - fracture usually seen in the vertebrae.
Impacted fracture - fracture that results in the bone fragments getting driven into each other.
Avulsion fracture - a fracture that results in a fragment of the bone getting separated from the main mass.
Based on the condition of the bone fragments
Incomplete fracture - a fracture in which the bone fragments continue to remain partially joined.
Complete fracture - a fracture in which the bone fragments have completely separated from each other.
Comminuted fracture - a fracture in which the bone has become broken into multiple pieces.