Bone Fracture And Its Types

What’s a fracture?

A fracture can be termed as a medical condition in which the bone's continuity is broken.

Types of bone fractures

Fractures are classified in numerous ways:

Based on mechanism of the fracture

Traumatic fracture - a fracture resulting from a trauma. For example, it could be a result of a fall, or a brawl, or a road accident.

Pathological fracture - fractures that occur due to certain medical conditions which results in the weakening of the bones. for example, osteoporosis, or certain types of cancers, or even osteogenesis imperfecta - a condition referred to as brittle bone disease.

Periprosthetic fracture - a fracture that happens at the point of mechanical weakness. for example, around an artificial joint, after a knee replacement.

Based on involvement of soft tissue

Closed or Simple fracture - fractures in which the overlying skin is not affected.

Open or Compound fracture - fractures that result in a wound, and the bone getting exposed. Such injuries carry a high risk of infection.

Based on fragments displacement

Non-displaced - the fracture did not involve any bone displacement.

Displaced - fracture resulting in bone displacement, and based on the kind of displacement, they are further classified into

  • Translated - the fractured segments have moved away from each other and there's a resulting gap.

  • Angulated fracture - displacement fracture that results in the normal axis of the bone getting altered.

  • Rotated - displacement fracture that results in rotation of the distal fracture segment from the proximal portion.

  • Shortened - there's a shortening of the overall bone length due to overlapping of displaced fracture fragments.

Based on the pattern of the fracture

Linear fracture - fracture that runs parallel to the axis of the bone.

Transverse fracture - a fracture that is at right angle to the axis of the bone.

Oblique fracture - a fracture that is diagonal to the axis of the bon (greater than 30 degree).

Spiral fracture - a fracture that results in the twisting of at least one part of the bone.

Compression fracture - fracture usually seen in the vertebrae.

Impacted fracture - fracture that results in the bone fragments getting driven into each other.

Avulsion fracture - a fracture that results in a fragment of the bone getting separated from the main mass.

Based on the condition of the bone fragments

Incomplete fracture - a fracture in which the bone fragments continue to remain partially joined.

Complete fracture - a fracture in which the bone fragments have completely separated from each other.

Comminuted fracture - a fracture in which the bone has become broken into multiple pieces.

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